Assertive Sentence or Statement


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General Rules :

If the reporting verb is in the present or future tense, the tense in the reported speech is not changed.

Direct          :         Nabil says, “I am fine.”

Indirect        :         Nabil says that he is fine.

Direct           :         The man says, “1 shall do it.”   ,

Indirect        :         The man says that he will do it.

Direct           :         He says, “I went there yesterday.”

Indirect        :         He says that he went there yesterday.

Direct           :         He will say, “I am ready to go.”

Indirect        :         He says that he is ready to go.

If the reporting verb is in the past tense, the verb in the reported  is changed into the corresponding past form.

Direct          :         Nadim said, “I am fine.”

Indirect        :         Nadim said that he was fine.

Direct .         :         He said, “I want to go.”

Indirect        :         He said that he wanted to go.    “

Direct .         :         He said, “I am reading a book.”

Indirect        :         He said that he was reading a book.

Direct .         :         He said, “I have learnt my lesson.”

Indirect        :         He said that he had learnt his lesson.

Direct .         :         He said, “I have been learning English.”

Indirect        :         He said that he had been learning English.

Direct .         :         He said, “I had reached the school before the bell rang”

Indirect        :         He said that he had reached the school before the bell rang.

Direct .         :         He said, “I can do the work.”

Indirect        :         He said that he could do the work.

Direct          :         He said, “I shall do it.”

Indirect        :         He said that he would do it.

Direct .         :         He said, “I shall have done it.”

Indirect        :         He said that he would have done it.

If the reporting verb is in the past tense, and the verb of the reported speech is in the past indefinite tense, it (the verb in the. reported speech) is changed into the past perfect tense.

Direct          :         Urmi said, “I went to school.”

Indirect        :         Urrni said that she had gone to school.

Direct          :         He said, “I wrote the book.”

Indirect        :         He said that he had written the book.

Direct          :         Kabir said to me, “I was sick.”

Indirect        :         Kabir told me (said to me) that he had been sick.

If the reporting verb is in the past tense, and the verb in the reported speech is in the past continuous, it (the verb in the reported speech) is changed into the past perfect continuous tense.

Direct          :         He said, “I was reading a book.”

Indirect        :         He said that he had been reading a book.

Direct          :         Shimu said to me, “I was making a research to solve the problem.”

Indirect        :         Shimu told me (said to me) that she had been making a research to solve the problem.

Note: The use of the conjunction that between the reporting speech and the -ported speech is not a must in the indirect speech.

If the Direct Speech describes a universal truth’, constant fact,.habitual fact, geographical fact & quotations, the verb in the reported speech remains unchanged:

Direct          :         The teacher said, “The earth moves round the sun.”

Indirect        :         The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.

Direct          :         He said, “My father reads the Holy Quran every morning.”

Indirect        :         He said that his father reads the Holy Quran every morning.

Direct          :         Keats said, “A thing of beauty is a joy for ever.”

Indirect        :         Keats said that a thing of beauty is a joy for ever.

The First Person of the direct speech is changed into the person of the man spoken to and the third person does not have any change:

Direct          :         Rahman said to Mamun, “Your father will go to my office”

Indirect        :         Rahman told Mamun that his father would go to his office.

Direct          :         Salam says to you, “You did not help me.”

Indirect        :         Salam tells you that you did not help him.

Direct          :         They said to us, “He will meet you.”

Indirect        :         They told us that he would meet its.

Note: If the Reporting Verb has an object, it is not good English to write, said to us/him before that, It is better to write told us/him etc.

If the Reported speech has two or more verbs occurring at the same time, the past tense of the verbs is not changed :

Direct          :         The teacher said, “Mr. Ant worked hard while Mr. Grasshopper slept.

Indirect        :The teacher said that Mr. Ant worked hard while Mr. Grasshopper slept.

Direct        :         He said, “The children sang, danced and played.”

Indirect          :         He said that the children sang, danced and played.

Words that express nearness are often changed into the words expressing remoteness:

 

Words in direct speech Words in indirect speech
Here there
This that
Ago before
These those
Hence thence
Come go
Hither thither
Thus so, in that way
Today that day, the same day
Tomorrow he next day, the followirig day
Yesterday the previous day, the day before
Last night the previous night, the night before

 

Exercise

  1. Change the following sentences into indirect speech :
  2. The boy says, “My father is working abroad.”
  3. Karim says. “1 was right”
  4. He said to me, “I shall help you”.
  5. Anwar said to them, “You were absent from the class yesterday”.
  6. The man said to Kalam, “You have not sent me he letter”.
  7. Ahmed said to his father, “I am preparing,my lesson”.
  8. He said to me, “I did not see the boy going”.
  9. They said to me, “You have done well”.
  10. The man said to the children, “Allah is kind”.
  11. They said, “We came worked and returned”.
  12. Change the following sentences into direct speech :
  13. He has said that he is ready to go.
  14. He said that he was sorry for being late that day.
  15. She said that she had not heard the news.
  16. He told me that he was there to help me.
  17. He said that he was fourteen years old.
  18. The teacher said that twelve months make a year.
  19. She said that she had been ill the previous day.
  20. He said that he was reading a newspaper.
  21. My friend said that she did not know her.

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